What is Technology Transfer?

Technology transfer, also called Transfer of Technology (ToT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the person or organization that owns or holds it to another person or organization.

It occurs along various axes: among companies, industries, from industries to businesses (and vice versa), from large businesses to smaller ones (and vice versa), from governments to businesses (and vice versa), across geopolitical borders, both formally and informally, and both openly and surreptitiously.

Often it occurs by concerted effort to share skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing, and facilities among governments or universities and other organizations to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials, or services.

It is closely related to (and may arguably be considered a subset of) knowledge transfer.

Horizontal transfer is the movement of technologies from one area to another. At present[when?] transfer of technology (ToT) is primarily horizontal.

Vertical transfer occurs when technologies are moved from applied research centers to research and development departments.

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